OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN CUBA
RIGHT TO EDUCATION
The American Declaration establishes:
Article XII. Every person has the right to an education, which should be based on the principles of liberty, morality and human solidarity.
every person has the right to an education that will prepare him to attain a
decent life, to raise his standard of living, and to be a useful member of
right to an education includes the right to equality of opportunity in every
case, in accordance with natural talents, merit and the desire to utilize the
resources that the state or the community is in a position to provide.
person has the right to receive free, at least a primary education.
Article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights proclaims the
universal right to education in the following terms;
1. Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
2. Education shall be directed to the full development of the human
personality ;and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and
fundamental freedoms. It shall
promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or
religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the
maintenance of peace.
3. Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall
be given to their children.
The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights,
although it repeats some of the above cited principles, goes beyond them in
sketching the specific characteristics of the right to education. Article 13 of the Covenant reads as follows:
1. The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of
everyone to education. They agree
that education shall be directed to the full development of the human
personality and the sense of its dignity, and shall strengthen the respect for
human rights and fundamental freedoms. They
further agree that education shall enable all persons to participate effectively
in a free society, promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all
nations and all racial, ethnic or religious groups, and further the activities
of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
2. The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize that, with a
view to achieving the full realization of this right: (a) Primary education shall be compulsory and available free
to all; (b) Secondary education in its different forms, including technical and
vocational secondary education, shall be made generally available and accessible
to all by every appropriate means, and in particular by the progressive
introduction of free education; (c) Higher education shall be made equally
accessible to all, on the basis of capacity, by every appropriate means, and in
particular by the progressive introduction of free education; (d)
Fundamental education shall be encouraged or intensified as far as
possible for those persons who have not received or completed the whole period
of their primary education; (e) The
development of a system of schools at all levels shall be actively pursued, an
adequate fellowship system shall be established, and the
material conditions of teaching staff shall be continuously improved.
3. The States parties to the present Covenant undertake to have respect for the liberty of parents and, when applicable, legal guardians to choose for their children schools, other than those established by the public authorities, which conform to such minimum educational standards as my be laid down or approved by the State and to ensure the religious and moral education of their children in conformity with their own convictions.
The American Declaration and the Universal Declaration consider three
different aspects of education: access,
content, and preference. For its
part, the international Covenant upholds similar concepts, although it adds the
element of promotion of education for adults and fellowships. The Covenant also recognizes the right of parents to promote
the moral development of their children, and it provides that for exercise of
educational preference to be possible, there should be a possibility of creating
alternative schools, independent from those created by public authorities.
With respect to the right to education, the Constitution of Cuba
establishes the following:
38. The state directs, foments and
promotes education, culture and science in all their aspects.
educational and cultural policy is based on the following principles:
a) The state bases its educational and cultural policy on the scientific
world view, disclosed and developed by Marxism-Leninism;
b) education is a function of the state. Consequently, educational institutions are state-owned.
The fulfillment of the educational function constitutes a task in which
all society participates and is based on the conclusions and contributions made
by science and on the closest relationship between study and life, work and
c) the state promotes the communist education of the new generations and
the training of children, young people and adults for social life.
In order to make this principle a reality, general education and
specialized scientific, technical or artistic education are combined with work,
development research, physical education, sports, participation in political and
social activities and military training;
d) education is provided free of charge. The state maintains a broad scholarship system for students
and provides the workers with multiple opportunities to study with a view to the
universalization of education. The
law regulates the integration and structure of the national system of education
and the extent of compulsory education and defines the minimum level of general
education that every citizen must acquire;
e) artistic creativity is free as long as its content is not contrary to
the Revolution. Forms of expression
in art are free;
f) in order to raise the level of cultural of the people, the state
foments and develops artistic education, the vocation for creation and the
cultivation and appreciation of art;
g) creation and investigation in science are free.
The state encourages and facilitates investigation and gives priority to
that which is aimed at solving the problems related to the interests of society
and the well-being of the people;
h) the state encourages the workers to engage in scientific work and to
contribute to the development of science;
i) the state directs, foments and develops all forms of physical
education and sports as a means of education and of contribution to the integral
development of all citizens;
j) the state sees to the conservation of the nation’s cultural
heritage and artistic and historic wealth.
The state protects national monuments and places known for their natural
beauty or their artistic or historic value;
k) the state promotes the participation of the citizens, through the
country’s social and mass organizations, in the development of its educational
and cultural policy.
39. The education of children and
young people in the spirit of communism is the duty of all society.
state and society give special protection to children and young people.
50. Everyone has the right to an
education. This right is guaranteed
by the free and widespread system of schools, boarding schools and scholarships
of all kinds and at all levels of education, and because of the fact that all
educational material is provided free of charge, which gives all children and
young people, regardless of their family’s economic position, the opportunity
to study according to their ability, social demands and the needs of
Adults are also guaranteed this right, in the same conditions free of charge with the specific facilities prescribed by law, through the adult education program, technical and professional education, training courses in state agencies and enterprises and the advanced courses for workers.
51. Everyone has the right to
physical education, sport and recreation.
of this right is guaranteed by including the teaching and practice of physical
education and sports in the curricula of the national educational system and by
the broad nature of the instruction and means placed at the service of the
people, which facilitates the practice of sports and recreation on a mass basis.
any effort to provide a people with formal education should begin by
addressing the problem of literacy, since the population should have, in the
first place, the concrete possibility of learning to read and write. The level of literacy is an index of a people’s potential
for future educational development. In
1953, the illiteracy rate in Cuba was 23.6% for the population over 10 years of
age. There were 1,032,849 people
who were unable to read or write; in other words, they were barred from formal
Illiteracy was not evenly distributed, as there were marked differences
among the provinces. For example,
the province of Havana where most of the political and economic resources of the
country were concentrated had an illiteracy rate of 9.2%, but the Province of
Oriente, a critical sugar-producing region with a population largely composed of
poor blacks, had an illiteracy rate of 35.3%.
All of the other provinces had an illiteracy rate of at least twice that
of the capital.
The differences in reference appeared not only among provinces, but also
as a result of social class and a person’s place of residence.
The rural areas, with a large number of peasants and illegal land
tenants, and a high rate of unemployment, had an illiteracy rate much higher
than that of the cities. Illiteracy
in rural areas was almost twice the national average, 41.7%, whereas the
recorded rate in urban areas was only 11.6%.
Most children did not attend school.
In 1953 “children between the ages of 6 and 9 represented 558,000
inhabitants of which 385,000, i.e., 84%, were illiterate.
The percentage of illiterates in the urban population from age 6-14
fluctuated from 44.5% in Havana to 81.2% in the Province of Oriente”
However, in rural areas it fluctuated between 64.1% in Pinar del Río and
89.5% in Oriente, while in the remaining provinces the rates were between these
At the beginning of the current political process, educational
infrastructure (buildings, classrooms, materials, etc.) was very poor.
In a study carried out by the University de Las Villas in 1959, for
example, it was shown that “96.2% of all schools in the province had only one
classroom, and that classroom was used simultaneously by students who ranged
from first to sixth grade and who received instruction from the same teacher.
The average number of students per classroom was 38, but with only 22
desks. Eighty percent had no
bathrooms and only 3% of them had indoor running water.
The average number of books per student was one, although approximately
15 different courses were taught”.
Even though primary education in the 1950s was compulsory and free of
charge under the law, it was not accessible to a considerable segment of the
population due to the incidence of several cultural and socio-economic factors.
Secondary, technical, vocational and university education was yet more
Access to good formal education also depended to a large extent on the
ability to pay for it. Education
for adults was practically nonexistent, since the State did not give it priority
and scholarships were very rare. Individuals
and institutions had the freedom to establish educational institutions in
accordance with their own expectations and views.
Beginning in 1959, the State authorities committed significant resources
to change the educational system, which included expanding its benefits to
larger sectors of the population. In
the spring of 1961, all private schools ere nationalized and a uniform and
national education system was instituted. Education
was provided free of charge at all levels and educational opportunities were
made “accessible to all Cuban citizens who were able and wished to study,
without regard to sex, race or socio-economic status”.
Once the juridical and organizational framework was established, measures
were adopted to eliminate illiteracy. The
first steps were taken in 1959-1960, but the largest and most systematic
campaign at the national level was undertaken in 1961.
The Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA) has noted that 100,000
students, 13,000 workers, 120,000 citizens and 34,800 teachers participated.
9The last group was that which taught reading and writing.
ECLA has indicated that illiteracy in the population over ten years of
age fell from 23.8% to less than 3.9%.
In other words, of a total of
929,207 identified illiterates, 707,212 were taught to read and write; 221,995
did not equate these skills.
By 1962 the number of illiterates in the provinces had been considerably
reduced in comparison to 1953. The
reduction occurred as follows: Pinar
del Río from 30.8% to 5.1%; Havana from 9.2% to 1.4%; Matanzas from 19.2% to
3.2% Las Villas from 24.8% to 3.9%; Camagüey from 27.3% to 5.5%, and Oriente
from 35.3% to 5.2%.
It has been estimated that in the decade of the 1970s over 93% of the
Cuban population was literate.
It is not possible, however, to define the present situation in terms of
Primary Education for Adults
As part of its overall policy, Cuban authorities instituted a program of
continuing education in order to improve the educational level of those who had
recently become literate. One
author has written:
the Literacy Campaign ended, a program to elevate the educational level of
workers and farmers began, and primary and secondary schooling was offered in
farms, factories, offices, and night schools. First, courses in self-improvement, by which a third-grade
education could be obtained, were made available to more than 500,000 adults.
Then, follow-up courses enabling students to get through the sixth grade
were opened. Those graduating could
later enroll in the Worker-Farmer Education programs to complete secondary
education. With the preparation
they could continue their education by going into vocational school or the
It should be pointed out in this regard that the necessary adjustments
were made in working hours to facilitate education for adults with significant
Registration rose 170% in the 1958-1960 period, and 1053% in 1960-1964
period, becoming constant thereafter. Numerous
crash programs have been carried out to educate adults, which have sometimes
failed. It has been considered
that “the high drop-out rate for 1964-65 suggests that crash efforts to
educate adults, such as the one made in that year, are not always successful”.
It has also been indicated that “the tapering off of the enrollment in
the early 1970s can be taken as an indication of the long-term success of the
program in ensuring a basic level of literacy in the Cuban society”.
In fact, a large number of adults, particularly workers and peasants,
have become literate. A study
carried out in 1960 on workers affiliated with union reveals that 53% of the
workers sampled had no more than two years of schooling and only 19% had gone
beyond sixth grade.
In 1973, when another census was taken of the working class,
approximately 50% of the sample had not concluded sixth grade,
but from 1973 to 1982 notable progress was made. At the beginning of 1980, the Cuban Confederation of Workers
declared that 1,258,528 workers had completed their primary education in the
period from 1959 to 1980.
Perhaps as important as the number of adults with a sixth-grade education
is the change that has taken place in the kind of education for adults.
The program for workers-peasants was aimed at basic education.
In 1964-1965, 97.7% of all adult students were registered in this kind of
program, but this number progressively fell to 87.5% (1969-1970) and to a low of
55.4% (1977-1978). Secondary,
technical, language and higher education is attractive ever more students; the
minimal level of education, which is now sixth grade, has opened this option to
Primary, Secondary and Technical Education
The registration rate at the primary level has advanced notably since
1959. There is a general consensus
among those who study the Cuban situation on the marked progress that has taken
place in this respect. For example,
ECLA has reported that “expansion of primary education has occurred very
rapidly, surpassing population growth until 1973 and tending to grow at the same
rate after 1976”.
Primary education covers grades 1 to 6; it is compulsory and free of
charge. In 1958, 49% of school-age
children (5 to 12 years of age) did not attend school.
In 1959 “51% of first-school-year-age children attended school”, and
since then it has continued to rise.
By 1971-1972 96% of primary school-age children attended school, a figure
which rose further in the following year, when it reached 98.5% of all
school-age children. Since then, attendance has remained constant at that level,
and it can therefore be said that primary education in Cuba at present is
The primary schools provide general instruction that includes rudimentary
concepts of Marxism, with emphasis on heroes and moral values, as well as
patriotism. In 1965 the primary
schools introduced the concept of “polytechnic course” that was adopted from
the socialist countries. This kind
of course seeks to familiarize children with manual labor performed with
machines and tools.
Over a period of twenty years (1960-1980), the number of students who
completed six years of education reached 2,755,706 (without counting those who
completed the adult education program). Primary
education has become the rule rather than the exception.
It should also be pointed out that “upon completion of primary school,
students are urged to continue their education up to the age of 17 as a ‘moral
Educational policy in the 1950s was quite different from this situation;
in fact, in 1960, one year after the revolution came to power, only 43% of the
school population that could attend secondary schools (from age 12 to 17), did
so. Twenty years later, school
attendance at that age level had reached 83.4%.
Education to the ninth grade is now compulsory for children.
The secondary school system is complex.
There are three different avenues: (1)
the basic schools of the secondary level (equivalent to grades 7 to 10); (2) the
technical schools at the secondary level (a three-year program).
(3) the schools to train teachers for the primary level (five-year
program). Each of these levels has expanded through the years, but the
most notable increases took place in the 1970s, when the students who had
completed their primary education began to enter the secondary system.
From 1960 to 1980, university preparatory schools produced 154,352
graduates (80.8% of them graduated after 1971).
For the same period, the basic secondary educational system had 574,800
graduates. In addition, over one
million people have received secondary education since 1959.
The distribution of resources and students at the secondary level has
changed considerably. The Economic
Commission for Latin America has observed that in 1960, rural areas represented
only 2% of total enrollment; even in 1967 they represented 2.7% of all secondary
school students. As more schools
were built in rural areas throughout the decade of the 1970s, enrollment rose.
In 1978, rural areas produced 37.7% of all students and a similar
proportion graduated. In other
words, city inhabitants were over-represented in secondary education but to a
considerably lesser degree than twenty years earlier.
After completing basic secondary education, students have the option of
pre-university studies or technical training.
Schools are distributed throughout the country, education at this level
is much more specialized, and the courses require great dedication.
For admission to these schools, candidates must have high grades.
These two kinds of schools have trained students on a massive scale only
in the decade of the 1970s. From
1961 to 1980 the technical schools had 258,100 graduates.
However, only 58,440 students graduated in 1982.
Completion of technical training allows the individual to become a
skilled worker or a technician at the intermediate level.
Those who graduate may continue their studies at a technological
institute for four years.
Before the beginning of the current political process, access to higher
education had been limited since only a small sector of the population reached
this level of the educational pyramid. In
the early years of the present regime, enrollment declined considerably; it was
only after 1964 that it surpassed the level prior to 1959. In the second half of the 1960s, growth was stable, reaching
approximately 7.1% annually. However,
in the following decade a different phenomenon occurred:
enrollment rose beginning in the early years of the 1970s (as was the
case with all except the primary level). In
1980, more students graduated at the university level in Cuba than the total
number of students who graduated at all levels in the 1957-1958 academic year.
From 1970 to 1980 the graduation level rose 641%.
The universities are closely linked to the production process; as a
result, students are expected to perform practical work in a center related to
their area of specialty or major course of study.
In 1953 only 5.5% people of
the age group of 20 to 24 years of age attended a university: 27 years later,
the figure was 23.8%.
There are no data on the number of students from rural areas who attended
or graduated from a university. The
graduation rate, however, has improved notably.
In 1970, only one of every four students who enrolled in a university
graduated; ten years later, the average had risen to one of every two students.
Growth of Resources in Education
Expansion of the educational sector has made the system accessible to 3.5
million people, i.e., at present one of every 2.83 Cubans is a student.
To be able to meet such strong demand it was necessary to invest large
sums in school construction, training of teachers and creation of adequate
infrastructure. In 1958, Cuba had
7,567 primary schools, 171 secondary schools, and 3 public universities.
In 1978, there were 13, 115 primary schools, 1,038 secondary schools and
39 higher education centers (figures corresponding to 1982).
One of the most serious difficulties that Cuban authorities have had to
overcome has been the training of a competent corps of teachers. According to one author:
of the problems faced by the revolution has been the acute scarcity of teachers.
This has resulted from two factors:
on the one hand, the unprecedented increase in the student population
absorbed the available number of primary and secondary school teachers, and on
the other, the exodus of the professional class, particularly after 1960, which
drained the educational resources of the country.
Facing this problem, the authorities of the revolution were forced to put
emergency measures into practice. Students
with a secondary school education were rapidly trained (in a few weeks), to
teach in primary schools in rural areas¼
At the same time, teachers without degrees, called popular teachers, who came
principally from those who participated in the literacy campaign of 1961 and who
did not have a sixth grade education, completed crash course for teaching at the
primary level in primary schools. The
popular teachers were given accelerated training, every Saturday and in a course
of 45 days during vacation, for a period of four years, after which they were
considered fully certified teachers. In
1969, nearly 60% of all teachers in primary schools came from this group.
At the secondary level, teaching personnel has been made up of advanced
students, university students and certified teachers.
In 1967, there were 36,000 advanced students employed at this level.
These emergency measures made it possible to meet quantitative demand,
but they did not solve the problems of quality in teaching.
In 1973, only 36% of primary-level teachers had been formally trained,
but thanks to a major effort aimed at solving this problem, by 1971 most
teachers had been certified with a ninth grade education at a minimum, and had
also been given adequate training. In
1980, for the first time, all primary teachers held degrees, but there are no
official figures on the situation at other levels of the system.
For the school year 1978-1979, the number of primary level teachers in
comparison with the year 1958 had grown 3.5 times, while secondary school and
university teachers had multiplied 13.6 and 9.6 times, respectively.
Although education is free of charge, it is difficult for some to study
because they must work to support their families or because the family situation
is such that young people cannot be sent far away due to a lack of resources.
The Cuban State has dealt with this problem by instituting a broad system
of scholarships. Since 1962,
scholarships include housing, food, clothes, shoes, medical and dental care,
recreation, a monthly allowance, transportation and expenses for books.
However, several requirements must be met to receive a scholarship: “Everyone who receives a scholarship must live in a
boarding school, attend classes daily, observe school discipline, and maintain a
high academic average. In addition,
scholarship recipients may only leave boarding school on Sundays, must be
faithful to the Revolution and study at least 20 hours per week.”
Since 1967, workers have been awarded subsidies if they need them and if
they meet the necessary university requirements for admission, and these
subsidies are non-reimbursable. In
1980, over half a million students were on scholarship.
Scholarships are distributed according to educational level. In 1978, 44.3% of scholarships were awarded to students at
the secondary level, 17.6% to students in the technical institutes, 12.6% to
pre-university students, 7.1% to university students and the remainder was
divided among students in special programs and in primary schools.
16.2% of all students were on scholarship in that year.
By 1980, the Cuban state spent $137 pesos per capita on education, i.e.,
16 times the amount of 1958.
Educational Methods and Content
It should be pointed out that educational methods require a fundamental
overhaul. Prior to 1959, most
schools were paternalistic, hierarchical and authoritarian in their approach,
relying of education through repetition and allowing little experimentation.
This has changed little. It
has been pointed out that at present teaching methods may be described as
“catechists-authoritarian, with an approach centered on the teacher,
characterized by a teacher addressing a class of passive students”.
This method has become widespread, even at the university level, because
apparently all education in Cuba is essentially political, and the country has
an official political ideology, which by definition is above and beyond any
questioning. This leads to dependence on the authority of teachers and to
the nonexistence of democratic life in classrooms, except among the students
It should likewise be stated that neither parents nor legal guardians
have the right to choose different or independent schools for their children, as
these do not exist and are not permitted in Cuba.
Education is the exclusive prerogative of the State and the Constitution
of Cuba of 1976 has formalized this monopoly.
With respect to the content of education, Cuban schools are required to
follow the guidelines set forth by Marxism-Leninism, as interpreted by the
State. Educational and moral
teaching is given by the State and not by parents, at least in the schools.
It has been rightly observed that “Cuban education suffers from a lack
This is due to several factors: (1) there are no independent schools; (2)
there are no alternative ways of approaching reality within the school system,
or even recognition of other viewpoints, since censorship is rigorous.
Cuban education appears to promote racial and ethnic tolerance, and
conscientiously seeks to reduce prejudice based on sex (this latter is a recent
phenomenon). Likewise, it seeks to
promote friendship among peoples (the thousands of foreign students who are
educated on the island are testimony to this).
However, religious or political points of view contrary to those of the
State are not tolerated.
As a matter of policy and principle, the educational system discriminates
for political reasons. This is
particularly true beginning at the secondary level, and occurs also with respect
to scholarships. Denunciations have
been received over the years of cases of students and teachers who have been
expelled or who have lost their jobs for not accepting the political or
ideological requirements approved by the State. Thus, in April 1971, a Cultural and Educational Congress was
held in Havana, and its final declaration established that school personnel at
all levels would observe the political, ideological and moral views established
by the State.
More recently, on March 12, 1980, the Government issued Law Decree No. 34
which establishes that students, teachers and workers may be expelled from
educational institutions for “defaming or publicly disparaging the
institutions of the Republic and the political, social and mass organizations of
the country, as well as its heroes and martyrs”.
In other words, to express an opinion may eliminate the possibility of
access to education as well as to employment.
Likewise, for example, 411 students who passed the admission exam for
medical school with high scores were not allowed to continue their education,
because they had “bad political attitudes”.
Others have also been denied admission for being considered “morally
deficient”, which in Cuba has the connotation of homosexuality.
In view of the above, it may be considered that notable progress has been
made in Cuban education since 1959. The
situation was well described in the statement that “One of the most impressive
results of the revolutionary rule in Cuba is the expansion of the scope and the
domain of the educational system. More
people are now educated than ever before, including more adults. Education is now perceived to be relevant to a larger number
of issues than ever before, from the running of the home to the running of the
Primary and secondary education is accessible to all, is free of charge
at all levels and compulsory up to the ninth grade.
Technical, vocational and university education now reaches a greater part
of the population than ever before. Education
for adults has been a constant concern of the State, which has been promoted and
intensified, and the positive results have been numerous.
Economic difficulties are not a definitive obstacle to school attendance.
Scholarships provide more opportunities than previously, and the material
conditions for teaching have been improved.
Neither social class, nor race, nor sex appear to play a role in access
to education. Place of residence
continues to work to the disadvantage of the rural population, but there is a
trend toward greater equality between urban and rural areas, which represents a
large difference with respect to the past.
Nevertheless, educational discrimination for political and even religious
reasons is a continuing phenomenon and one which must be emphatically condemned.
Official statistical data cited by Nelson
P. Valdés, “The Radical Transformation of Cuban Education” in Cuba
in Revolution, Rolando E. Bonachea and Nelson P. Valdés, eds., New
York, Doubleday, 1972, pp. 422-423.
Ibid, p. 423.
La Education Rural en Las Villas, Santa Clara, Universidad Central de Las Villas, 1959.
Proceedings of UNESCO General Conference,
14th Session, 1966, p. 498.
(Havana), August 16, 1968, pp. 40-43.
 Mesa-Lago, C., “The Economy¼” op. Cit., p. 165.
Valdés, N.P., “The Radical¼”
Domínguez, J., “Cuba: ¼”
op. Cit., p. 167.
 Granma Resumen Semanal, April 25, 1982, p. 16.
 Bohemia, September 26, 1980, p. 5.
 Granma, January 10, 1980, p. 2.
Paulston, Roland G., The Educational
System of Cuba U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare,
Washington, D.C., 1976, p. 6.
Bohemia, November 2, 1973, p. 37; September 12, 1980, pp. 58-83; April 7, 1972,
Supplement, p. 19; Granma Resumen Semanal, April 18, 1982, p. 2;
April 18, 1982, p. 16.
Comité Estatal de Estadísticas, Anuario
Estadístico de Cuba 1975, Anuario Estadístico de Cuba 1978, Bohemia,
September 12, 1980, pp. 58-63.
Paulston, R.G., The Educational ¼
op. Cit., p. 6.
Iglesias, Enrique V., “Development
and Equity: The
Challenge of the 1980s”, CEPAL REVIEW, No. 15, December 1981, p. 13; Boehmia,
September 12, 1980, pp. 62-63; GRS, March 14, 1982, p. 3.
Paulston, R.G., “The Educational¼op.
Mesa-Lago, C., “The Economy¼”
op. Cit., p. 165; the figure used was 749,995 people between the ages of 20
and 24 born December 31, 1979, and a university population of 178,519.
See: Comité Estatal de
Estadística, Anuario Demográfico de Cuba 1979, Havana, 1981, p. 15.
op. Cit., p. 89.
 CEPAL, “Cuba¼” op. Cit., p. 101.
p. 89; Cuba en Cifras 1979.
 Valdés, N.P., “The Radical¼” op. Cit., p. 440.
Anuario Estadístico de Cuba 1978.
Bowels, Samuel, “Cuban Education and
the Revolutionary Ideology”, Harvard Educational Review, Vol. 41,
No. 4, November 1971, p. 497.
Domínguez, Jorge, “Assessing Human
Rights Conditions”, in Jorge I. Domínguez, et al, Enhancing Global
Human Rights, New York, McGraw Hill, 1979, p. 51.
Granma Resumen Semanal,
April 23, 1971; May 9, 1971, pp. 7-9.
Bohemia, March 19, 1982, p. 46.
Domínguez, J., “Assessing¼”